IntroductionThe Spaniards’ earliest explorations, or entradas, into the New World brought significant changes to the peoples living in the American Southwest. Beginning in the 1500s, the Spanish introduced the horse in their journeys through the land and their battles with the indigenous populations.
Native Americans, particularly the Apache, Navajo, and Utes, quickly adapted to horses. Horses enabled them to travel great distances, mount raiding parties on Pueblo and Spanish settlements, engage in battle and, eventually serve as scouts with the United States Army.
The horse has played a significant part in settling the American Southwest. Native American, Hispano, and later Anglo settlers established cattle ranches, roamed the range, and drove cattle drives. The American cowboy culture came into being.
View historical photographs of horses.
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Related materials are selections that are related to this Footpath’s topic.
InstructionTime: One to two class periods
ObjectivesTo examine the characteristics of an indigenous people that had an effect on New Mexico’s development.
To describe the characteristics of other indigenous peoples that had an affect upon New Mexico’s development (e.g. great plains horse culture, nomadic bands, noting their adaptation to environments, social structure, domestication of plants, and animals).
To examine how New Mexicans have adapted to their physical environments through adaptation to an arid environment and cultivation techniques.
To examine an aspect of Spanish, Apache, and Navajo culture and analyze information to use to answer critical questions.
StandardsNM Public Education Department, SS, grade 7, A2, A5, D1, D2
Title: Kingston in the Old Days
Source(s): Black Range Tales
Author(s): Howard Simon (Artist); James A. McKenna (Author)
Description: Black and white woodcut: Kingston village scene.
Publisher: High-Lonesome Books
Publication Date: 2002
Catalog Number: p. 298-A
Source(s): Myths and Legends of the Lipan Apache Indians
Author(s): Traditional; Morris Opler (Editor)
Description: Killer-of-Enemies creates a landscape and customs for the Lipan Apache people.
Publisher: American Folklore Society
Publication Date: 1940
Credits: Note: The School for Advanced Research Press has done its best to identify, locate, and request permission from copyright holders. We respectfully ask users to contact us if they have information about the identity or address of copyright holders whom we were unable to reach. We will be happy to take the appropriate steps to obtain permission.
Title: The Utes
Author(s): Southwest Crossroads Spotlight
Description: A brief history of the Utes.
Publisher: SAR Press, School for Advanced Research
Publication Date: 2006
Title: Agarró nomás la Cuarto [He Just Grabbed the Whip]
Source(s): Abuelitos: Stories of the Rio Puerco Valley
Author(s): Eduardo Valdez (Author); Nasario García (Editor)
Description: Oral historian Nasario García interviewed many elders from the Río Puerco area of New Mexico, including Eduardo Valdez, who remembers the early days and the best cowboy around, Don Teodoro.
Publisher: University of New Mexico Press; Published in Cooperation with the Historical Society of New Mexico
Publication Date: 1992
Catalog Number: pp. 34-35
Credits: Excerpt courtesy University of New Mexico Press. Nasario García (collected and edited by).
Title: Who Were the Lipan and the Kiowa-Apaches?
Description: An introduction to the Lipan and Kiowa-Apache peoples.
Publication Date: 2005
Title: Tennyson Berry (Kiowa Apache), 1913
Author(s): DeLancy Gill (Photographer)
Description: Portrait of Kiowa Apache Tennyson Berry, 1913.
Collection(s): Palace of the Governors
Catalog Number: DCA 59438
Credits: DeLancy Gill (photographer), Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA) #59438
Title: Apache Camp
Author(s): Unidentified (Photographer)
Description: Teepees in Apache Camp, Otero County, NM.
Catalog Number: DCA 2091
Credits: Unidentified Photographer, Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA) #2091
Title: Mescalero Apache Tipis, ca. 1906
Author(s): H. F. Robinson (Photographer)
Description: Mescalero Apache Tipis, ca. 1906.
Catalog Number: DCA 36086
Credits: H. F. Robinson (photographer), Courtesy Palace of the Governors (MNM/DCA) #36086